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Archive for the ‘Sperm’ tag

Putting All Your …Sperm in One Basket

By Tracey Minella

January 31st, 2012 at 10:05 am


It’s the last day of the month and that means it’s “Just for Guys” day here at the Fertility Daily blog! For those who don’t know it, I always post something of particular interest to the boys on the last blogging day of the month. You know, just to remind them where their place is…Oh, just kidding! (Where would we be without them?)

So, today I’m sharing a true miracle story especially to inspire the guys with male factor infertility (and their loving wives).

The man was tested. No sperm. Not low motility or low count.

None.

But thanks to advancements in assisted reproductive technology, he underwent a testicular biopsy…a procedure to search tissue for sperm, one at a time. A team of three scientists spent 9 hours searching his tissue for sperm.

They found one. A single sperm. And they froze it.

The wife underwent IVF and wasn’t a super egg producer herself, according to the article. But, with ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection), they fertilized one of her eggs with that single sperm cell.

And she conceived. Against the odds.

They have a little girl now. To read the whole story, click here: http://todayhealth.today.msnbc.msn.com/_news/2012/01/19/10191182-miracle-baby-born-from-single-frozen-sperm

Fortunately, Long Island IVF patients have easy access to our on-staff male reproductive specialist, Dr. Yefim Sheynkin. His unique experience and many years of expertise in reproductive medicine, microsurgical treatment of male infertility, and sperm retrieval techniques for in vitro fertilization are unparalled.

If you have male factor infertility, please ask your RE about all of your options. Get evaluated by their on-staff reproductive urologist. The best centers will have one. You may have more options than you think.

* * * * * * * * * * *** * * *

Do you find stories like this inspiring? If you were diagnosed with severe male factor infertility and were a candidate for a procedure like the couple in this article had, would you consider it?

Photo credit: http://www.publicdomainpictures.net/view-image.php?image=18939&picture=driving-away

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History of Embryology

By admin

December 26th, 2011 at 8:55 pm


Know what a “wave of negativity” is? It’s the phrase embryologists use to describe the moment when “the” one sperm penetrates the egg cell and all other sperm are shut out as if a door slammed in their faces. Um, if they had faces. Well, you know what I mean.

Even if you don’t generally love history, this essay from Embryologist, Sharlene Gumbs, is a fascinating read about an African-American pioneer in embryology from the early 1900’s. Read on about how Sharlene became the master of her domain:

Through the Eyes of an Embryologist

“When were you introduced to the word ‘embryologist’”?   This question was posed to me at a recent dinner meeting with my colleagues and other health care professionals.

At the time that I was asked, my mind was preoccupied with the triple chocolate mousse on the dessert menu. Thus, a very generic reply was given.  “School,” I said. On my way home that evening, the question popped in mind and I remembered that my introduction to the word “embryologist” began with a U.S. postage stamp.

In my junior year of college, I received an endearing letter from a fellow classmate. The letter was posted with a stamp of Ernest E. Just.  I knew little about the man on the postage except that he was African- American, a biologist, and worthy of a commemorative stamp.

After doing some library research, I discovered that E.E. Just, PhD was biologist in the early-mid 1900’s who studied the process of egg fertilization and embryo development in marine invertebrates.  Just is credited with being the first biologist or embryologist to observe and document a cortical change that sweeps over the egg at the point of sperm entry. This change or shift in egg cell membrane potential was defined by Just as the “wave of negativity” that prevents fertilization by more than one sperm (i.e., polyspermy).

Today, this wave is referred by scientists as the “fast block”.  Just was also the first to infer that the second block to polyspermy known as the “slow block” occurs as a result of the formation of a protective membrane around the fertilized egg.

In addition to being a pioneer in his field, Just was a humble and unassuming man who did not flinch at challenging the theories of leading biologists of his time. In one of the 70+ scientific papers published by Just, he criticized the theory of geneticist and noble laureate, T. H. Morgan.  Morgan, a former embryologist, theorized that genes on chromosomes within the nucleus controlled inheritance and embryo development. 

Just, however, believed otherwise.  He was a traditional embryologist who postulated that the factors for inheritance were located in the egg cytoplasm and consequently the cytoplasm played a dominant role in embryo development.  Although Just’s cytoplasm- centered theory was ultimately erroneous, his explanation contained traces of truth.  Through scientific research, we know today that embryo development is a multi-faceted process that combines genetics, cytology, and embryology.

E. E. Just, PhD had a notable career in academia and in experimental embryology that spanned 50 years and two continents but he was not oblivious to the feelings of discomfort towards people of African diaspora.  Over the years, his tolerance for racial inequity in early 20th century America waned and he relocated to the Mediterranean.

In Italy, aside from room temperature vino rosso, Just discovered a relationship between blastomere adhesiveness in a cleavage embryo and embryo development.  Although his experiments were conducted on non-human subjects, a similar relationship can be observed when we, the clinical embryologists, assess IVF embryos.

With the onset of fascism in Italy, Just decided it was best to move his family to France.  It was in France that he completed his magnum opus The Biology of the Cell Surface, in which he writes “The cell is the biologist crucial unit of observation and the egg cell is the special domain of the embryologist”.

Sharlene Gumbs, T.S. (ABB)

* * * * * *

Any questions about embryology? Ask them

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A Condom as a “Loot Bag”?!

By Tracey Minella

December 1st, 2011 at 7:45 pm


Imagine being a guy and having sex with your girlfriend. And when you’re done, she runs off to the bathroom… with the condom. Then minutes later, she’s out the door. Some guys would say that’s one cold, um, witch. Others may think that’s odd, but no big deal.

Either way, it doesn’t make for a fairytale love story. And, unsurprisingly, you part ways.

But she returns with news of a twin pregnancy and a paternity accusation.

“How-can-it-be-mine-we-used-a-condom?” But paternity is proven in the lab and child support is ordered.

Then, imagine opening the mail one day to find a receipt in your name from a fertility clinic you never visited. What the #&$%?

No, this isn’t the plot of John Grisham’s latest twisted legal thriller.

This is a claim by a 36 year old man who alleges that his ex-girlfriend stole his sperm without his knowledge and used it in her in-vitro fertilization procedure without his consent, resulting in twin boys. She allegedly used a condom as a “loot bag” and made off with the semen sample inside.

The Texas fertility clinic alleges to have blood samples and signed consent forms in its possession, purportedly belonging to the man. The woman’s attorney alleges that the man is making this claim up to avoid paying child support. You can read more here:

http://www.click2houston.com/news/Dad-Twins-came-from-stolen-sperm/-/1735978/4810498/-/a5ypjj/-/

It will be interesting to see how this all plays out. And since this post is my monthly “Just for Guys” post (normally done on the last blogging day of the month, but put off one day due to the NWW contest posted yesterday), I think the guys can learn something today no matter how it plays out.

The lesson to learn has nothing to do with who may or may not be lying in this case. It has nothing to do with this case at all.

The lesson comes in recognizing that the possibility exists for any man’s semen to be collected, taken, and used from a certain condom to create a baby elsewhere…I’m not just talking about the many hurdles (and laws!) a woman who’d want to improperly use it for an IUI or IVF would have to somehow by-pass…I’m talking about a fertile woman using it right in the bathroom at home. You know… the bathroom she ran off to with the condom.

That lesson is…

A kick in the “family jewels” may only hurt for a few minutes. But, leaving a used condom unprotected may have a significant and life-long impact. In the hands of a woman bent on conceiving at any cost, it’s like a sack of gold. When you let her leave with it (or you leave without thought), you could possibly be leaving a treasure trove of potential offspring behind. It may be highly unlikely, but it is conceivable. (Sorry, I couldn’t resist!)

Today’s advice for the guys: Don’t let anyone run off with your used condom. Dispose of it properly. Ladies: Warn the guys you know…and don’t get any ideas!

* * * * * * * *  *** * ** **

What do YOU think about this alleged stolen sperm claim?

Photo credit: http://www.publicdomainpictures.net/view-image.php?image=2862&picture=asleep

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New “Just for Guys” Support Group at ECF!

By Tracey Minella

June 29th, 2011 at 12:00 am

You asked for it and we listened. (Shout out to Peter!)

And we’ll keep on listening! (That’s the whole point, isn’t it?)

East Coast Fertility is proud to announce the formation of a brand new support group, exclusively for the guys. No wives allowed! I think it’s a first on Long Island! (That’s so like us!)

Under the gentle guidance of ECF’s own Bina Benisch, M.S.,R.N …well-known for her awesome work with our female patients… the men will now get to openly explore their own feelings about being part of an infertile couple. C’mon guys, haven’t you always been jealous that the ladies had a place to go talk about everything that’s driving them crazy…including you? Well, now you can do the same.

Venting is healthy, especially when moderated by a professional. It’s time to let out those feelings. Stress isn’t good for the boys. You don’t talk about this stuff with the guys at the office or the gym, right? Even your brothers don’t get it. And you keep it from your partner because you don’t want to further burden her or seem weak, right? So noble…but so wrong. Your feelings count, too!

This is your chance to become part of something that can only help you get through this infertility journey. It doesn’t matter if the diagnosis is male factor or something else. All guys are welcome.

You’ll help yourself understand your feelings. You will bond with other men who are living with the same pain. You may even make some new friends. Can’t you see it now? A bunch of like-minded guys one-upping each other with stories of their wives’ hormonal outbursts. No one’s gonna judge you here.

The meetings will be held twice a month, every other Tuesday night, from 6:30 pm until 7:30 pm at the Plainview office. Please contact Bina Benisch at binabenisch@gmail.com to register and for more information. There is no fee and no commitment.

* * * * * * * * * ** * * * *

Can I get a “Woo-Hoo” from either the interested guys…or the wives who will be forcing them to go? Come on now. Let’s not have Peter stuck talking to himself…

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7 Tips to Survive Father’s Day When You’re Infertile

By Tracey Minella

June 17th, 2011 at 12:14 am

We don’t always remember that wanna-be dads are hurting on Father’s Day the way we acknowledge the pain of wanna-be moms. So here’s seven suggestions to help the guys this weekend:

1.  Honor Your Father: If you are lucky enough to still have your father and are close enough geographically, be sure to visit him on Sunday. Sometimes you can get distracted by your own pain and your quest for fatherhood and take your dad being there for granted. Don’t do that. You never know if he will be here next year. And if visiting isn’t possible, be sure to call. Share a favorite memory from childhood. You’ll be glad you did.

2.  Get Proactive:  What can you do today that will help your fertility? Those tight briefs aren’t helping. Switch to boxers. Been meaning to quit smoking, stop drinking, or lose weight? Well, there’s no time like now. How about a long walk for exercise and clearing your mind? Any step you take to live healthier will make you feel better…even on Father’s Day.

3. Consider Charity:  Sometimes helping others less fortunate than we are makes us feel better about our plight and puts things in perspective. Trying to avoid the family barbeque with your 17 nieces and nephews and your 4 pregnant sisters? Why not help at a soup kitchen on Sunday? Or bring some school supplies or toys to a children’s shelter? Good karma never hurts.

4.  Pull the Plug on Procrastination:  What have you put off doing that might be delaying your fertility plan? Is there lab work or other testing you haven’t done? Have you put off the dentist or a medical check-up? Do you need to make vacation time arrangements at work so you can do IVF? And how many times have you tried to tackle the health insurance issues only to put the paperwork down again?

5. Take Care of You:  No one’s feelings are more important than yours and your partner’s. Don’t put yourself in a vulnerable position on Sunday (or any day). Avoid people you know will likely upset you, whether intentionally or unintentionally. You must protect yourself.

6.  Positive Imagery:  Take some time alone to remind yourself of your good qualities and the reasons you are going to make a great father someday. Envision it but don’t dwell to the point of sadness. Write down 3 reasons why you will be superdad someday. Trust that it will be.

 

7. Enter Our Free Micro-IVF Contest:  If you blew off suggestion #5 and somehow found yourself in the company of a moron who said the most shocking and insensitive thing to you (or your partner) about being infertile, turn those lemons into lemonade! Enter the comment in our June contest and you could win one of 5 great prize packages, plus each of the 5 winners becomes eligible to win the Grand Prize of a free Micro-IVF cycle valued at $3,900.00!! Just go to the June 6th blog post right here on the fertility daily http://www.eastcoastfertility.com/about/blog/blog-entry/archive/2011/june/article/make-us-gasp-to-win-free-micro-ivf/?tx_ttnews%5Bday%5D=06&cHash=accae177179dffac86846a328eaa12b7 or on ECF’s facebook page from June 6th . It’s so quick and easy!

Last year’s contest winner and her husband are celebrating their first Father’s Day on Sunday. Will YOU celebrate yours next year? Why not increase your chances? (You don’t have to use your real name if you prefer anonymity.)

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A Father’s Day Fertility Message

By Bina Benisch, M.s.,r.n.

June 14th, 2011 at 12:00 am

As Father’s Day is looming near, couples struggling with fertility once again may experience the quiet rumbles of impending anxiety – wondering how they will cope surrounded by another celebration of parenthood while they remain feeling empty as a family. 

Women often express the dreaded anticipation of the emotional beating they experience during holidays and family gatherings, where seemingly innocuous remarks about parenthood are felt like a blow to their hearts. 

But how do the men in their lives feel?

Infertility may raise feelings of frustration, self-doubt, inadequacy, and isolation – and Father’s Day can intensify these feelings.  Does your partner open up about his feelings? Is he aware of them? If so, mutual compassion and communication can strengthen the bond of your relationship.

I often hear the frustration of men who attempt to be supportive and sensitive to their partner’s feelings, yet whatever he says or does seems wrong…. and even worse, he feels powerless to help his wife or the situation.  Ouch. 

Take a step back for a moment, and imagine how the feeling of emotional powerlessness is amplified in the mind and heart of a person struggling with infertility – mirroring the physical failure of infertility.  Even if the fertility issue is a female factor, the male partner is often left feeling bereft in terms of how to cope with supporting his wife.  These feelings are often multilayered and multifaceted.  The emotions are a mixed bag, and clarity is elusive.  This may manifest as verbalizing words that simply reflect frustration, anger, and emotional withdrawal.

Men often feel used for their sperm, and sexual intimacy is no longer an intimate expression, but a duty performed only for fertilization.  Unfortunately, infertility can drain all the spark, chemistry, sexual, and emotional attraction from a relationship. Awareness of these issues, along with the will to overcome them, empowers your relationship to not only survive this crisis, but become even more connected as a couple.

This Father’s Day, try giving a gift to the man you love, the man who would like to become a father.  Perhaps the gift is appreciating his value and support in whatever unique way he demonstrates it.  Perhaps the gift is accepting his perspective on fertility, even if that perspective differs from yours. 

The gift may even be as simple as letting him know that you love him unconditionally – irrespective of needing him for sperm or conception. 

 * * * * * * * * * *  * * * *

Are you planning on doing anything special to help your man through the day?

PLEASE ENCOURAGE HIM TO ENTER OUR CONTEST! OR ENTER IT YOURSELF! SEE THE JUNE 6TH POST RIGHT HERE ON THIS BLOG FOR DETAILS. IT’S SO EASY TO ENTER AND YOU COULD WIN A FREE MICRO-IVF CYCLE AND OTHER PRIZES!

JUST TELL US THE MOST SHOCKING, INSENSITIVE THING SOME MORON HAS SAID TO YOU!

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You Need a “Wave of Negativity For a Healthy Pregnancy”

By Tracey Minella and Sharlene Gumbs, T.s.

May 10th, 2011 at 12:00 am

No, I’m not talking about depression. It’s the phrase coined by one of the earliest embyologists to describe the moment when the "chosen” single sperm penetrates the egg cell and all other sperm are instantly shut out, as if a door slammed in their faces. Um, if they had faces. Well, you know what I mean.

Even if you don’t generally love history, this essay from East Coast Fertility Embryologist, Sharlene Gumbs, is a fascinating read about an African-American pioneer in embryology from the early 1900’s. Read on about how he inspired Sharlene to become the master of her domain:

Through the Eyes of an Embryologist

“When were you introduced to the word ‘embryologist’”?   This question was posed to me at a recent dinner meeting with my colleagues and other health care professionals.

At the time that I was asked, my mind was preoccupied with the triple chocolate mousse on the dessert menu. Thus, a very generic reply was given.  “School,” I said. On my way home that evening, the question popped in mind and I remembered that my introduction to the word “embryologist” began with a U.S. postage stamp.

In my junior year of college, I received an endearing letter from a fellow classmate. The letter was posted with a stamp of Ernest E. Just.  I knew little about the man on the postage except that he was African- American, a biologist, and worthy of a commemorative stamp.

After doing some library research, I discovered that E.E. Just, PhD was biologist in the early-mid 1900’s who studied the process of egg fertilization and embryo development in marine invertebrates.  Just is credited with being the first biologist or embryologist to observe and document a cortical change that sweeps over the egg at the point of sperm entry. This change or shift in egg cell membrane potential was defined by Just as the “wave of negativity” that prevents fertilization by more than one sperm (i.e., polyspermy).

Today, this wave is referred by scientists as the “fast block”.  Just was also the first to infer that the second block to polyspermy known as the “slow block” occurs as a result of the formation of a protective membrane around the fertilized egg.

In addition to being a pioneer in his field, Just was a humble and unassuming man who did not flinch at challenging the theories of leading biologists of his time. In one of the 70+ scientific papers published by Just, he criticized the theory of geneticist and noble laureate, T. H. Morgan.  Morgan, a former embryologist, theorized that genes on chromosomes within the nucleus controlled inheritance and embryo development. 

Just, however, believed otherwise.  He was a traditional embryologist who postulated that the factors for inheritance were located in the egg cytoplasm and consequently the cytoplasm played a dominant role in embryo development.  Although Just’s cytoplasm- centered theory was ultimately erroneous, his explanation contained traces of truth.  Through scientific research, we know today that embryo development is a multi-faceted process that combines genetics, cytology, and embryology.

E. E. Just, PhD had a notable career in academia and in experimental embryology that spanned 50 years and two continents but he was not oblivious to the feelings of discomfort towards people of African diaspora.  Over the years, his tolerance for racial inequity in early 20th century America waned and he relocated to the Mediterranean.

In Italy, aside from room temperature vino rosso, Just discovered a relationship between blastomere adhesiveness in a cleavage embryo and embryo development.  Although his experiments were conducted on non-human subjects, a similar relationship can be observed when we, the clinical embryologists, assess IVF embryos.

With the onset of fascism in Italy, Just decided it was best to move his family to France.  It was in France that he completed his magnum opus The Biology of the Cell Surface, in which he writes “The cell is the biologist crucial unit of observation and the egg cell is the special domain of the embryologist”.

Sharlene Gumbs, T.S. (ABB)

* * * * * *

Any questions about embryology

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Rabbinically Supervised A.R.T.

By admin

August 16th, 2010 at 12:00 am

Everybody knows a thing or two about kosher food:  Meat and milk, for example, just don’t go together; although that wouldn’t stop a creative kosher food vendor from selling a kosher “cheeseburger” provided, of course, that the burger portion derives from soy, or equivalent, not meat.  Additionally, only certain kinds of meat and fish are kosher.  So, why are symbols of kosher supervision required on many food items (for example, pretzels or cookies) that appear to be “intrinsically kosher”? 

There are two important answers: One, the kosher label on the bag, box, or wrapper of food affirms that a competent supervisor ensured that the processing and packaging of the food item was done using instrumentation dedicated for kosher purposes.  Kosher food cannot be produced in the same factory or kitchen, on the same equipment, used to serve or manufacture non-kosher food.  Two, supervision aims to ensure that honest mistakes are quickly identified and rectified, and to deter foul-play.  Ideally, 24-hour-a-day supervision would be desirable.  However, owing to logistic considerations, several alternative arrangements exist; commonly, the kosher supervisor promotes kosher practice and integrity by making frequent, randomly scheduled, unannounced, and unrestricted visits to the kitchen or factory.

So, who can be a kosher supervisor?  The answer is simple: it can be any reliable individual with integrity, man or woman.  There is but one requirement: competence.  The supervisor must be versed in the relevant religious laws as well as in the relevant technology and logistics of the food production he/she is supervising.  After all, in Judaism, just one witness – male or female – is required to vouch for issues of prohibition / permissibility.  Accordingly, a woman knowledgeable in the laws of kosher food or family purity is given absolute credence to affirm that her cooking is kosher, or that she is permitted / prohibited to her husband based on her menstrual status.  The overriding concept: a competent and knowledgeable observer is needed to verify the integrity of a process involving religious prohibition.

Judaism has a well-known embrace of assisted reproduction.  The Biblical mandate to procreate and the perspective that infertility is a disease deserving of medical intervention underpin the widespread Rabbinic and communal support for A.R.T.  But there are important considerations for Orthodox patients.  And one of them is that their gametes and embryos must be supervised in the embryology laboratory – as an added layer of protection to ensure that a mix-up, albeit rare, does not occur.  Strict protocols involving acquisition, labeling, processing and storage do exist at East Coast Fertility and other large and busy A.R.T. centers to ensure that eggs, embryos, and sperm from different couples are not inadvertently confused.  Indeed, all patients require and deserve absolute reassurance that their gametes and embryos are closely guarded to avoid the rare, but devastating, repercussions when there is a mix-up.  However, akin to the laws of kosher-food supervision, many Orthodox patients will not undergo A.R.T., nor will they obtain Rabbinic permission, unless a mechanism of supervision is instituted.  And, again, the goal is not to prevent the sensationalized possibility of foul-play.  Rather, by having an observer knowledgeable in the relevant basics of Jewish law and assisted reproduction, an extra layer of protection against inadvertent error is achieved.  The stakes can be high:  many Rabbinic authorities categorically prohibit donor sperm or eggs – and inadvertent use can and will have unavoidable repercussions on the offspring.  In the spirit of the Talmudic dictum that stringencies are to be applied in matters of lineage (“Ma’aleh Assu B’Yuchsin”), many Rabbis specifically condition approval for IUI or IVF on the provision of a supervision protocol.

The embryology lab in a busy A.R.T. center is a confusing place.  Different organizations (A Time, Bonei Olam, and Machon Pu’ah) train men and women to function as supervisors protecting the “identity” of gametes in the lab.  At East Coast Fertility, patients interested in religious supervision (Hashgacha) are encouraged to contact their Rabbonim and these organizations.  East Coast Fertility works closely and cooperatively with the Rabbinic supervisor to ensure the continued attainment of the highest levels of success – both spiritually and medically!

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Sperm DNA Fragmentation – Is it an overlooked factor?

By admin

July 7th, 2010 at 12:00 am

The integrity of sperm DNA is essential for the transmission of the father’s gene contribution.

Tests which show an increased fraction of sperm DNA fragmentation has been shown in some studies to correlate to other sperm pathologies such as poor motility, count and morphology. However, due to lack of confirmatory evidence of its role in fertilization most reproductive endocrinology clinics do not test for sperm DNA fragmentation.  Many state that they would perform IVF whenever the patient presents with even borderline sperm parameters and that the test therefore would not effect their management.

As in all areas of medicine, there is internecine battling going on between physicians as to the meaning and the effect of sperm DNA fragmentation on male fertility.  Some doctors completely disagree with its relevancy as a contributor to male infertility; some physicians accept its contribution but don’t know what to do with the findings; others think that the only real detriment to the quality of sperm rendered by DNA fragmentation is the sperm’s inability to penetrate the egg and they think that injecting the sperm into the egg (ICSI) effectively deals with the problem.  Unfortunately, there is evidence to the contrary.

Sperm DNA fragmentation has a far reaching effect on fertility and surpasses the mere diminished ability of sperm to penetrate egg.

[i]Some studies show that with higher percentages of sperm DNA fragmentation, there are increased correlations in spontaneous abortions.  The proportion of patients with abnormal sperm DNA integrity is higher in couples with spontaneous miscarriage.  This is not surprising as a good embryo is nothing other than the combination of a good egg with a good sperm and sperm with DNA fragmentation is not good sperm.

In sperm without DNA fragmentation the DNA is protected from damage while being transported through both the male and female reproductive tracts; if there is damage to the DNA then impaired fertility would logically follow.

Causes of DNA fragmentation are many and varied ranging from genetic anomalies to reactive oxygen species due to white blood cell (leukocyte) infiltration), as well as varicocoeles.   

As DNA repair systems are less active in the later stages of sperm production, sperm with fragmented DNA can readily reach the ejaculate.

Men that have sperm DNA fragmentation greater than 30% are typically infertile.

Treatment options

Antioxidant therapy

Antioxidants ‘scavenge’ reactive oxygen species and can, in some instances, reduce sperm DNA fragmentation percentages.  An anti oxidant compound which has been shown to be effective in some instances is composed of lycopene 6mg, vitamin E  400IU, vitamin C  100mg, zinc 25mg, selenium 26 mg, folate  .5 mg  and garlic (available in pill form)1000 mg. This should be taken once daily.

Acupuncture and Herbs

Acupuncture with its ability to stimulate blood which transports oxygen and nutrients to the testes, while carrying debris away from the testes may also be an effective treatment.

 Many herbal medicines also have high antioxidant properties and should be included in the treatment regimen. 

Combining antioxidant therapy as described above with acupuncture and herbal medicine can potentially reduce sperm DNA fragmentation and increase fertility outcomes in men with high percentages of DNA fragmentation.

Smoking cigarettes and marijuana have been shown to contribute to sperm DNA fragmentation. Elimination of these mitigators may also reduce sperm DNA fragmentation percentag


[i] Schlegel, Peter N.  Sperm Chromatin Abnormalities and Reproductive Outcome Biennial Review of Infertility, 2009; 129


[i] Schlegel, Peter N.  Sperm Chromatin Abnormalities and Reproductive Outcome Biennial Review of Infertility, 2009; 129

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